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In-country localization partner Localization partners that are located in the country for which software is targeted.

In-house localization Localization projects which take place at the location of the localization service provider.

Internationalization (I18N) Forerunner of localization. "The process of designing and implementing a product which is as culturally and technically "neutral" as possible, and which can therefore easily be localized for a specific culture." (LISA) The "18" in I18N indicates the number of letters abbreviated.

Localisation Industry Standards Association (LISA) A non-profit, industry-wide organization that "aims to provide professional support for the development of localization guidelines and business standards". Many of the leading companies in the localization industry are members of this organization.

Localization (L10N) Process of adapting a product to meet the linguistic, audiovisual, technical and legal requirements of a foreign market (locale). XTRA uses both the terms "translation" and "localization" to describe the adaptations that a software product must undergo in order to meet the needs of the target culture. To us, translation is an integral and essential part of localization, whereas the latter term refers to the adaptation of complex multimedia products, including graphics, audio files and so forth. Therefore, by using the term localization as a superordinate concept of translation we are also referring to various aspects of the product that are to be adapted - not simply the texts. The "10" in L10N indicates the number of letters abbreviated.

Localization engineer Staff member who specializes in the technical aspects of the localization process. This involves engineering issues such as internationalization of source code, debugging, and graphical and audiovisual adaptations.

Localization industry Totality of companies and institutions offering services, consulting, and training in the field of localization.

Localization service provider Company which offers a wide range of services involving the translation and localization of products (often software). These services may also include consulting, training, marketing and distribution.

Localization specialist Staff member who has skills in both translation and localization.

Localization tool Software application designed for translating software resource files, adapting the graphical user interface (GUI) (resizing, for example), and testing selected software features. The functionality of localization tools varies.

Multi-language vendor (MLV) Provider of localization services into multiple target languages.

Outsourcing Farming out of corporate translation projects to single- or multi-language vendors.

Simship Simultaneous shipment of a (software) product in multiple language versions.

Single-language vendor (SLV) Provider of localization services into a single target language.

Software product Refers not only to the computer program, including online help, but also the manuals and marketing material.

Source language Refers to the spoken language in which the (software) product was written (as opposed to artificial languages used to program software).

Target language The spoken language into which the (software) product is localized.

Terminology management tool A computer application that allows users (translators) to create and maintain databases containing terminology specific to projects, clients and products. The databases are used and maintained during the translation process, improving translation productivity and consistent usage of terminology.

Time-to-market Period of time between the development and shipment of a product. This is a critical issue in terms of competitiveness and cost efficiency.

Translation memory (TM) A file that stores previously translated texts in their source and target languages. The texts and their translations are divided into smaller units (sometimes referred to as "segments") so that they can be used and reused by translators as an aid to translating texts with a similar content. Translation memory tools may interface with terminology databases, support different file formats and project management features.

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